Who Was Who
ALVA, FERDINANDO ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, DUKE OF.
Commander of the Spanish forces in the Netherlands in the years before the Armada.
ANJOU, FRANCIS, DUKE OF (1554-1584) Fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. Although twenty years Elizabeth's junior, he was considered a suitor for Elizabeth's hand for many years.
ANNE OF CLEVES (1515-1557) Fourth wife of King Henry VIII. She was the daughter of the Duke of Cleves. It was hoped that the marriage would bring an alliance with the German Protestants following the break with the Church of Rome. Reputedly, when Henry met her, he did not find her very attractive, and so divorced her. However, she fared well and was known affectionately as the "King's sister".
ARTHUR, PRINCE OF WALES (1486-1501) He was the eldest son of Henry VII. He married Katherine of Aragon in 1501, but died not long after. As Katherine had declared that the marriage had never been consummated, she married afterwards Henry VIII, becoming his first wife, but when Henry wished to divorce her, he used her marriage to his brother as the reason, stating that the Bible did not allow the marriage of a man with his brother's widow.
ARUNDEL, HENRY FITZALLAN, EARL OF A suitor to Queen Elizabeth in the early years of her Queenship.
ASCHAM, ROGER (c1515-1568) A renown English scholar. In 1548, after writing a treaty on Archery for Henry VIII, he was appointed tutor to Elizabeth. He did not lose favour under Edward VI or Mary I and also served Elizabeth. He wrote The Scholemaster, dealing with the art of education.
ASHLEY, JOHN, A distant cousin of Anne Boleyn, he was a servant of Elizabeth's from childhood, and married her governess Katherine Ashley.
ASHLEY, KATHERINE, Governess to Princess Elizabeth in childhood, and Mistress of the Robes and Chief Lady-in-Waiting to Elizabeth as Queen. She married Elizabeth's distant cousin, John Ashley. She was probably the only real mother figure that Elizabeth knew.
BABINGTON, SIR ANTHONY (1561 - 1586) He was a devoted English Catholic. He has given his name to a plot to kill Elizabeth that resulted in the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was one of the ringleaders of the plot, which was intended to rise English Catholics against Elizabeth in conjunction with a foreign invasion of England, murder the Queen, free Queen Mary, and put her on the throne. The plot was discovered by Sir Francis Walsingham, and Babington along with the other conspirators, was executed in the September of 1586.
BACON, FRANCIS, (1561-1626) He was the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon. He was also the nephew of William Cecil, Lord Burghley. He was a clever man, a politician, philosopher, and essayist. His works include Essays (1597) Advancement of Learning (1605) and Novum Organum.
BARNWELL, ROBERT, An Irish Catholic conspirator, executed under Queen Elizabeth for treason.
BEAUFORT, MARGARET, (1443-1509) Married Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, in 1455. She was Henry VII's mother and the great grandmother of Queen Elizabeth.
BEDFORD, FRANCIS RUSSELL, EARL OF, A soldier, and Privy Councillor to Queen Elizabeth.
BEDINGFIELD, SIR HENRY, Custodian of Princess Elizabeth during her imprisonment at Woodstock in the reign of Mary I.
BLOUNT, BESSIE, She was a mistress of Henry VIII and had a son by him, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond.
BOLEYN, ANNE, (c1507-1536) She became Henry VIII's second wife early in 1533 when she was already ready pregnant with Elizabeth. She was Queen for the legendary "thousand days" between 1533 and 1536. Disappointed because she did not bear him a son, Henry tired of her, and she was beheaded on false charges of adultery in May 1536, when Elizabeth was only 2 years old.
BOLEYN, MARY, Anne Boleyn's sister, thus aunt to Queen Elizabeth. She was also a mistress of Henry VIII, and married William Carey, a gentlemen of Henry's Privy Chamber.
BOLEYN, SIR THOMAS, EARL OF ORMONDE AND WILTSHIRE Father of Mary and Anne Boleyn.
BONNER, EDMUND, Bishop of London under Queen Mary I
BOTHWELL, EARL OF see JAMES HEPBURN, 4thEARL OF BOTHWELL
BRYAN, LADY, MARGARET, Governess to Mary, Edward, and Elizabeth.
BURBAGE, CUTHBERT (1566-1636) He built the original Globe Theatre in London in 1599.
BURBAGE, JAMES (1530-1597) He built the first English Theatre, simply named "The Theatre". He was the father of Richard and Cuthbert Burbage.
BURBAGE, RICHARD. (c1567-1619) He was the leading actor of the Lord Chamberlain's men, and is thought to have been the first actor to play Shakespeare's Hamlet, Othello and Lear. He also appeared in first productions of Ben Jonson.
CAMPION, EDMUND (1540-1581) English Jesuit and Catholic martyr. He was also a scholar and poet. He became a Jesuit in 15 73 and in 1580 was sent to England as a missionary. He was reluctantly executed for treason by Elizabeth's government in 1581.
CAMPION, THOMAS, (1567-1620) Poet and musician. He wrote The Art of English Poesie (1602) and Bookes Of Ayres, in which he composed both the words and music.
CAREY, HENRY, BARON HUNSDON, He was the son of Mary Boleyn. He was thus first cousin to Queen Elizabeth. He was a Privy Councillor and Lord Chamberlain.
CAREY, KATHERINE The daughter of Mary Boleyn and sister of Henry. First cousin of Queen Elizabeth. She married Francis Knollys.
CAREY, ROBERT, EARL OF MONMOUTH (c.1560-1639) A courtier. He delivered the news of Elizabeth's death to James I.
CARLOS, DON, (1545-1568) He was the illegitimate son of King Philip II of Spain. He proved to be mentally unstable and was imprisoned after a plot to kill his father.
CATHERINE DE MEDICI, (1519-1589) She married King Henry II of France in 1533. She was initially overshadowed by her husband's mistress Diane de Poitiers (1490-1566), but later as Queen Mother of France, was very powerful. Three of her sons were kings, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, and her fourth son, also called Francis, was considered as a suitor to Elizabeth. She was also mother in law to Mary, Queen of Scots, who married her second son, Francis.
CECIL, SIR WILLIAM, LATER LORD BURGHLEY (1520-1598) Secretary of State and Lord treasurer under Queen Elizabeth. He was chief Minister to Elizabeth after surviving the political intrigues of the preceding reigns. He was a man of great administrative ability, and responsible for much of the success of Elizabeth's reign. Elizabeth trusted his judgement, and they worked well together for forty years. An ardent Protestant, he was very much suspicious of the Catholic powers in Europe, and was a keen advocate of the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. Her execution, which Elizabeth denied responsibility for, caused the only one serious breakdown in their relationship. Cecil was soon restored to favour, however, and Elizabeth grieved deeply at his death in 1598.
CECIL, ROBERT, LATER EARL OF SALISBURY (1563-1612) Son of Sir William Cecil. Like his father he became Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth. He retained his influence under King James I and was made Earl of Salisbury. Robert Cecil was largely responsible for the smooth transfer of power to James when Queen Elizabeth died.
CECILIA, PRINCESS OF SWEDEN, She acted as ambassador for her brother, King Eric, in his suit to marry Queen Elizabeth. She was delivered of a baby boy during her visit to England.
CHAPUYS, EUSTACE, Ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire.
CHARLES, ARCHDUKE, The son of Ferdinand and brother of Maximilian. He was a suitor to Queen Elizabeth in the early years of her reign.
CHARLES V (1500-1558) Holy Roman Emperor (1519-56). He was the father of Philip of Spain, and a nephew of Catherine of Aragon. Like his son, he was probably the most influential ruler in Christendom during the reign of Henry VIII.
CHARLES IX (1550-1574) King of France, suitor to Queen Elizabeth.
CHEKE, SIR JOHN, Greek scholar and Royal tutor.
CLINTON, EDWARD FIENNES, LORD, Privy Councillor to Queen Elizabeth and first Lord of the Admiralty.
COBHAM, HENRY Lord Warden of the Cinque ports under Queen Elizabeth.
COLIGNY, ADMIRAL, Leader of the Hugeunots in France.
COOKE, SIR ANTHONY, Greek scholar and royal tutor. Father of Mildred Cooke, second wife of William Cecil.
COOKE, MILDRED, Daughter of Sir Anthony, second wife of Sir William Cecil, mother of Robert Cecil. She had a reputation as a very learned woman and able scholar.
COURTENAY, EDWARD, Descendant of Edward IV. He was considered by many as a husband for Queen Elizabeth.
CRANMER, THOMAS, Archbishop of Canterbury under Henry VIII, and sympathetic to Anne Boleyn. He was executed under Queen Mary I for heresy.