Who Was Who
LEICESTER, EARL OF, SEE ROBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER.
MARGARET TUDOR (1489-1541) The eldest sister of Henry VIII. She married James IV of Scotland. She was grandmother to Mary Queen of Scots, and Mary's second husband, Lord Darnley.
MARLOWE, CHRISTOPHER, A famous playwright. He was murdered in a tavern. Author of plays such as The Massacre of Paris, and Dr Faustus.
MARPRELATE, MARTIN, The pen name of the anonymous Puritan pamphleteer under Queen Elizabeth.
MARY, QUEEN OF ENGLAND.(1516-1558) The eldest daughter of King Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Following her parent's divorce, Mary had a difficult time, and suffered greatly. A devoted Catholic, when she became Queen, she returned the country to the Catholic faith. She married Philip II of Spain, but died childless in the November of 1558 after only a five year reign.
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, (1542-1587) A cousin to Queen Elizabeth .Catholic, executed for treason in 1587.
MARY TUDOR (1496-1533) The youngest sister of Henry VIII. She first married against her will the King of France, but after his death, she rebelliously married her lover, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Her daughter was Lady Jane Grey's mother.
MEDINA SIDONIA, DUKE OF, The commander of the Spanish forces during the Armada.
MELVILLE, SIR JAMES, An ambassador for Mary Queen of Scots to Queen Elizabeth. He has left us his memoirs which contain many interesting accounts of meetings with Queen Elizabeth and her courtiers.
MENDOZA, BERNADINO, DE The last Spanish Ambassador during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. When relations with Spain had deteriorated too far, no Spanish Ambassador was present at the Court.
MORAY, EARL OF, JAMES STEWART, The illegitimate son of James V of Scotland, half brother of Mary, Queen of Scots. Although he initially supported the rule of his sister, he was involved in her downfall.
NORFOLK, DUKE OF, THOMAS HOWARD, Powerful nobleman in the reign of Elizabeth I. He had Catholic sympathies, although denied being a Catholic himself. He married three times, losing each wife in childbirth. He was made a Privy Councillor by Elizabeth, but his relationship with her became more and more difficult as his involvement with Catholic rebels increased. He was pardoned of the conspiracy of 1569, which was intended to see him married to Mary Queen of Scots, and did not suffer too badly after the Northern Rebellion. He was unpopular with Elizabeth's loyal subjects, however, and after another Catholic plot of 1571, the Duke was reluctantly executed by the Queen.
NORRIS, HENRY, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII. He was executed on false charges of adultery with Anne Boleyn.
DE VERE, EDWARD, EARL OF OXFORD, A courtier and theatre patron. He married Anne Cecil, daughter of William Cecil. Many people believe him to have been the secret author of Shakespeare's plays.
PARKER, MATTHEW (1504-1575) Archbishop of Canterbury.
PARMA, ALEXANDER FARNESE, DUKE OF, Spanish commander in the Netherlands and commander of the Armada fleet of 1588.
PARR, KATHARINE (1512-1548) The sixth wife of King Henry VIII, and apart from Anne of Cleves, the only one to out live him. She married very soon after his death, Thomas Seymour, brother of the new Protector, Edward Seymour. It was a love match, but Seymour's interest in Elizabeth caused problems. Katherine died during childbirth. Her daughter Mary survived, but little is known of what became of her. She may have died in her teens.
PARRY, BLANCHE, She nursed Elizabeth as a baby, and remained in the Queen's service until her death in 1589, By which time she was blind, but Elizabeth loved her dearly and was very protective of her old servant. Blanche was Welsh, and reputedly taught Elizabeth to speak some Welsh.
PARRY, THOMAS, He served Elizabeth for many years, and was made Lord treasurer of the household when she became Queen.
PARRY, WILLIAM.(d.1585) He was employed by William Cecil to spy on the activities of Catholics abroad. However, he came to have sympathies with the Catholic cause, and wanted greater tolerance of Catholicism in England. He became involved with agents of Mary, Queen of Scots, although when suspected of being involved in the plot to kill Queen Elizabeth, he argued that he was only involved to gain knowledge of their activities. Queen Elizabeth believed him, and he was made a member of Parliament. Plagued by debt, he once again resorted to spying for the Government's. However, after suggesting an assassination of the Queen, he was a arrested. It is not sure whether he wanted the Queen to be murdered, or whether he suggested this in a ploy to frame someone else. He was executed for treason in 1585, despite his pleading that he was only acting in the interests of the Queen.
PAULET, AMIAS, Custodian of Mary, Queen of Scots.
PEMBROKE, COUNTESS, MARY SIDNEY HERBERT, Elizabethan writer, poet, and patron of the arts. Daughter of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Dudley (sister of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester). Married Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Sister of Sir Philip Sidney.
PEMBROKE, EARL OF, WILLIAM HERBERT, A soldier, courtier, and Privy Councillor to Queen Elizabeth.
PHILIBERT, EMMANUEL, DUKE OF SAVOY, A suitor to Queen Elizabeth.
PHILIP II, King of Spain and husband of Queen Mary. Philip II ruled all Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, much of southern Italy, part of northern Italy, the Netherlands, and a great empire in the new world of America. The bullion from the new world made him rich. In 1580, he also became ruler of Portugal.
PICKERING, WILLIAM, An ambassador to France, and suitor of Queen Elizabeth.
POLE, REGINALD, CARDINAL, Papal legate to Queen Mary, and Archbishop of Canterbury.
PUCKERING, SIR JOHN, Lord Keeper to Queen Elizabeth.