Who Was Who
HATTON, CHRISTOPHER, (1540-1592)
A long time favorite of Queen Elizabeth. Tradition has it that he danced his way to her attention, but he was a very clever and able man, and worthy of the trust she placed in him. He was made a Privy Councillor and later Lord Chancellor of England.
HAWKINS, SIR JOHN, A seafarer and naval commander during the Armada .
HENEAGE, SIR THOMAS, A courtier. He was favoured by Queen Elizabeth, and at one time appeared to have supplanted Robert Dudley in her affections after the couple had argued, but this state of affairs did not last long, and Dudley very soon once again monopolized her favour.
HENRY II King of France and father in-law of Mary Queen of Scots. Mary Boleyn was his mistress for a time. He was killed while jousting.
HENRY III King of France, killed by the Huguenots
HENRY STUART, LORD DARNLEY(1546-1567), He was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was the second, but eldest surviving, son of Matthew Stewart, the Lord Lennox, and his wife, Lady Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, daughter of Henry's sister, Margaret Tudor. He was a thus a cousin to Queen Elizabeth. In 1565, he married Mary. Mary refused Darnley the Crown matrimonial. The marriage was unsuccessful, and jealous of Mary's attention to David Rizzio, he plotted his murder. He was murdered in 1566, when his house at Kirk O Field was blown up. His body and that of his page was found under a tree, unmarked by the explosion. It appears that they had been strangled before the house was blown up. Darnley's body was buried in the tomb of James V in the Chapel of Holyrood.
HERBERT, MARY SIDNEY See PEMBROKE, COUNTESS, MARY SIDNEY HERBERT.
HOWARD, KATHARINE, (d.1542) She was the fifth wife of Henry VIII and a cousin to Queen Elizabeth. By the time of their marriage, Henry was ageing, and Katherine was not faithful to the King. She was executed on the charge of adultery.
HARRINGTON, SIR JOHN, 1561 - 1612. Poet, courtier, and inventor of the water closet. He was the son of John Harrington and Isabel Markham, who were friends and servants of Queen Elizabeth, and had been imprisoned with her in the tower when she was Princess. She was godmother to him. He attended court, and was always held affectionately by the Queen. He did get into trouble with the Queen on several occasions, but was always forgiven. Much of what we know about the court in the last years of Queen Elizabeth's reign comes from his writings.
HEPBURN, JAMES, 4th EARL OF BOTHWELL (c.1535-1578) A Protestant Scottish nobleman. In 1568 he married Mary, Queen of Scots, becoming her third husband. The marriage proved disastrous for Mary as it was believed Bothwell had murdered her second husband, Darnley, and the marriage resulted in her being deprived of the throne. Mary divorced him in 1570. He died insane in a prison in the Netherlands.
HOWARD, LORD WILLIAM OF EFFINGHAM, A Privy Councillor and great uncle of Queen Elizabeth.
HUNTINGDON, HENRY, EARL OF, A courtier of Queen Elizabeth. Descendant of Edward III
INNOCENT V Pope of Rome
JAMES V, KING OF SCOTLAND Father of Mary Queen of Scots, died when Mary was only one week old.
JAMES, KING JAMES VI OF SCOTLAND, AND LATER JAMES I of ENGLAND Son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley. He was raised a Protestant by the Scottish Lords, and although King of Scotland from his youth, he was not made King of England until Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603.
JEWEL, JOHN, (1520 - 1571). BISHOP OF SALISBURY. As a Protestant in the reign of Queen Mary, he went abroad. He returned to England on the accession of Queen Elizabeth, and was made bishop of Salisbury. He was sympathetic towards Puritans. He defended the established Church, and was a writer. One of his most important pieces of writing was his Apologia Ecclesiae Anglicanae (written in Latin in 1562 and translated into English in 1564 by Anne Bacon, mother of Francis Bacon) in which he justified the position of the Anglican Church. He was a patron of scholars, and kept a kind of school in his palace at Salisbury, where he trained poor boys who held academic promise. He died in September of 1571.
JOHN OF AUSTRIA, DON, Spanish Regent in the Netherlands.
KATHERINE OF ARAGON (1485-1536) Henry VIII's first wife, and mother of Queen Mary. Although married to Henry for over 20 years, when it became clear to him that she would not bear him a son that would live, he divorced her and married Anne Boleyn. To gain the divorce he had to break with the Church of Rome, as his plea to the Pope for divorce on the basis that Katherine had married his brother, failed. Katherine never recognized the divorce, and proclaimed herself always to be his rightful wife. Neither would Mary recognize the divorce. Their wilfulness angered Henry, and he kept them from each other's company in the hope that they would yield. They never saw each other again, as Katherine died, probably from cancer.
KNOLLYS, SIR FRANCES, A Privy Councillor. He married Katherine Carey, daughter of Mary Boleyn.
KNOLLYS, LETTICE, The daughter of Sir Francis Knollys and Katharine Carey; wife of Viscount Hereford, the later first Earl of Essex and mother of Penelope and Dorothy Devereux and Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex; later wife of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester and of Sir Christopher Blount.
KNOX, JOHN, Scottish Protestant preacher and writer.