Holy Roman Emperor
QUEEN ELIZABETH I
The Holy Roman Empire was a vast territory of land made up of many provinces, each governed by their own ruler or prince. This Empire incorporated Germany, Austria, and stretched as far as Poland. The Holy Roman Emperor was elected by the princes and while the position was more honorary than having actual power, it was a very prestigious title.
The Scandinavian countries were monarchies, Sweden and Denmark having their own sovereign. Norway was under the rule of the Danish. Sweden was a Protestant country and so in a tacit form of alliance with England, but it was not a particularly wealthy country. King Eric of Sweden hoped to marry Queen Elizabeth for some years, but his suit was unsuccessful.
Hungary and Poland were larger than they are today and were on the edge of the Turkish states belonging to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans were a considerable threat to Christian Europe (Christendom) and much effort was put into fighting them by Philip II who also governed Poland. For a century they had taken land after land and added it to their vast empire, but their strength was beginning to ebb as their internal government was slowly eaten by corruption. The Battle of Lepanto in 1571 was a turning point in European history, for after the defeat of the Ottomans by Philip, they never again posed such a threat to Christendom.
Battle of Lepanto
Russia was ruled by a Tsar and did not play a great part in the history of Elizabeth's reign. However, Elizabeth was on good terms with Ivan IV, "The Terrible". The Queen even once sent the Tsarina her own doctor.
The centre of European trade was Antwerp (in the Netherlands). However, with the outbreak of the rebellion against Philip II, the centre of trade slowly began to move to London. Many Protestants from the Netherlands fled to England during Elizabeth's reign and brought with them craftsmanship skills that the English could learn.