1 April - Sigismund I of Poland dies, aged 81. Succeeded by Sigismund II.
5 September - Katherine Parr dies.
20 March - Execution of Thomas Seymour, Edward Seymour's brother, for treason. His execution brings disgrace upon Edward Seymour, and he is replaced as Protector by John Dudley.
War with France.
Act of Uniformity.
Treaty of Boulogne.
4 June - Robert Dudley married Amy Robsart. The future Queen Elizabeth I was amongst the guests.
Council of Trent session II.
Renewal of war between France and Charles V.
22 January - Execution of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset.
6 July - Death Edward VI.
21 May - The arranged marriage of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley took place.
10 July - Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen.
20 July - Mary Tudor proclaimed Queen.
3 August - Mary rode in triumph into London, her half -sister Elizabeth with her.
30 October - Coronation of Mary I.
Thomas Wyatt's rebellion.
12 February - Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her husband Guildford Dudley.
18 March - Elizabeth is sent to the Tower for supposed complicity with Wyatt and his followers.
11 April - Execution of Sir Thomas Wyatt.
19 May - Elizabeth is taken from the Tower to be closely confined at Woodstock Manor, Oxfordshire.
25 July - Queen Mary marries Philip II.
30 November - Sir Philip Sidney is born.
The famous burning of Protestants by Mary I begins.
16 October - Bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley are burned at the stake at Oxford.
Elizabeth is released from Woodstock after a year's captivity, and allowed to return to her childhood home of Hatfield.
23 March - Pope Julius III dies.
30 April - Pope Marcellus dies, aged 52, succeeded by Pope Paul IV.
25 October - Charles V hands over his imperial position to his brother Ferdinand, and his sovereignty of the Netherlands to his son, Philip.
24 January - A massive earthquake kills 850,000 people in China.
21 March - Archbishop Thomas Cranmer is burned at the stake.
6 June- Joao of Portugal dies on his 55th birthday and is succeeded by his three year old grandson, Sebastian.
7 July - Mary Tudor declares war on France in support of her husband.
16 July - Death of Anne of Cleves.
10 August - Battle of St Quintin: Spanish forces defeat the French.